The lack of preventive treatments for common disorders of the nervous system is a glaring unmet medical need. Temporal lobe epilepsy is a common and devastating disease. An episode of prolonged seizures occurring in an otherwise healthy individual is thought to cause severe temporal lobe epilepsy emerging years later. Recent discoveries have identified targets and therapies to prevent this disease in experimental animals. This presentation will review these discoveries and focus in particular on the causal role of excessive neurotrophin signaling in development of temporal lobe epilepsy.